Clovis Oncology, Inc. (NASDAQ: CLVS), today announced topline data from the randomized Phase 3 ARIEL4 study of Rubraca, which met its primary endpoint of improved investigator-assessed progression-free survival (InvPFS) compared to chemotherapy in relapsed ovarian cancer patients with a tumor mutation of BRCA who have received two or more prior lines of chemotherapy.
“We are pleased with these topline results from the ARIEL4 trial, which confirm the clinical benefit of Rubraca versus chemotherapy, including platinum-based chemotherapy, as a treatment for women with BRCA mutation-positive advanced ovarian cancer, including patients who are platinum-resistant,” said Patrick J. Mahaffy, President and CEO of Clovis Oncology. “We look forward to sharing comprehensive results at an upcoming medical meeting.”
The ARIEL4 study (NCT02855944) is a Phase 3 multicenter, randomized study evaluating Rubraca versus chemotherapy in platinum-sensitive, partially platinum-sensitive and platinum-resistant patients with relapsed ovarian cancer and a BRCA mutation (inclusive of germline and/or somatic) who have received two or more prior lines of chemotherapy. The primary endpoint of the study is InvPFS, with a step down analysis from the efficacy population (if significant) to the ITT population. The efficacy population comprised the group of patients with a deleterious tumor BRCA mutation and excluded those with a BRCA reversion mutation as determined by a blood test developed by Guardant Health. Development of reversion mutations that restore BRCA protein function are associated with resistance to platinum-based chemotherapies and PARP inhibitors in BRCA-mutant cancers, and these occur more frequently in platinum-resistant vs platinum-sensitive patients (13% and 2% respectively in the ARIEL2 study).i
Completion of ARIEL4 is a post-marketing commitment in the U.S. and EU.
349 women were enrolled in North and South America, Europe and Israel. The efficacy population (n=325) comprised the group of patients with a deleterious tumor BRCA mutation and excluded those with a BRCA reversion mutation. The rucaparib arm (n=220) successfully achieved statistical significance over the chemotherapy arm (n=105) for the primary endpoint of InvPFS with a hazard ratio of 0.639 (p=0.0010). The median PFS for the patients in the efficacy population treated with rucaparib was 7.4 months vs. 5.7 months among those who received chemotherapy.
In addition, in the ITT population (n=349), the rucaparib arm (n=233) successfully achieved statistical significance over the chemotherapy arm (n=116) for the primary endpoint of InvPFS with a hazard ratio of 0.665 (p=0.0017). The median PFS for the patients in the ITT population treated with rucaparib was 7.4 months vs. 5.7 months among those who received chemotherapy.
Patients with a BRCA reversion mutation represented 7 percent of patients enrolled in the study and as anticipated, InvPFS results for those patients showed limited benefit from Rubraca therapy.
An interim analysis of overall survival, a secondary endpoint in the study in which 51 percent of events have occurred in the ITT population, showed a trend toward an overall survival (OS) advantage in the chemotherapy arm, but was confounded by the high rate (64%) of per-protocol crossover to Rubraca following progression on chemotherapy. Importantly, an analysis of the ITT population of patients showed a trend toward an OS advantage for those patients who received Rubraca at any point in the trial versus those who did not.
Adverse events were consistent with the known safety profiles of Rubraca and chemotherapy.
The most common (>5%) treatment-emergent grade 3/4 adverse events (TEAEs) among all patients treated with rucaparib (n=232) in the ARIEL4 study were anemia/decreased hemoglobin (22%), neutropenia/decreased absolute neutrophil count (10%), asthenia/fatigue (8%), thrombocytopenia/decreased platelets (8%), and increased ALT/AST (8%).
“The ARIEL4 study verified that women with relapsed, BRCA mutation-positive advanced ovarian cancer, including those who are platinum-sensitive or -resistant, received benefit with rucaparib treatment when compared to chemotherapy,” said Dr. Amit Oza, Head of the Division of Medical Oncology & Hematology, Medical Director of the Cancer Clinical Research Unit at Princess Margaret (PM) Cancer Centre, co-Director of the Drug Development Program at PM Cancer Centre, Senior Scientist at the Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, and Professor of Medicine at University of Toronto. “These results underscore the importance of rucaparib as a treatment option for women with BRCA-mutant advanced ovarian cancer.”
Ovarian cancer ranks fifth in cancer deaths among women in the U.S.ii and EUiii. While there are a growing number of therapies to treat ovarian cancer, after initial therapy, 70-90% of U.S. womeniv with advanced disease will recur. In the EU, approximately 70% of patients experience a relapse within three years following initial therapy.v
“Ovarian cancer remains a lethal gynecologic cancer and there are limited treatment options for relapsed disease,” said Dr. Rebecca Kristeleit, Co-Chief Investigator of ARIEL4 and Consultant Medical Oncologist, London, UK. “There is a need for therapies that can extend time to progression. The ARIEL4 data confirm the clinical relevance of BRCA reversion mutations and advance our understanding of how best to manage the treatment of women with advanced ovarian cancer.”
Drs. Rebecca Kristeleit and Amit Oza are coordinating investigators on the ARIEL4 study. Clovis Oncology plans to provide an expanded description of the ARIEL4 results at a medical meeting in 2021.
About Rubraca (rucaparib)
Rucaparib is an oral, small molecule inhibitor of PARP1, PARP2 and PARP3 being developed in multiple tumor types, including ovarian and metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancers, as monotherapy, and in combination with other anti-cancer agents. Exploratory studies in other tumor types are also underway.
Rubraca Ovarian Cancer U.S. FDA Approved Indications
Rubraca is indicated for the maintenance treatment of adult women with recurrent epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal cancer who are in a complete or partial response to platinum-based chemotherapy.
Rubraca is indicated for the treatment of adult women with a deleterious BRCA mutation (germline and/or somatic)-associated epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal cancer who have been treated with two or more chemotherapies. Select patients for therapy based on an FDA-approved companion diagnostic for Rubraca.
Select Important Safety Information
Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS)/Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) have occurred in patients treated with Rubraca, and are potentially fatal adverse reactions. In 1146 treated patients, MDS/AML occurred in 20 patients (1.7%), including those in long term follow-up. Of these, 8 occurred during treatment or during the 28 day safety follow-up (0.7%). The duration of Rubraca treatment prior to the diagnosis of MDS/AML ranged from 1 month to approximately 53 months. The cases were typical of secondary MDS/cancer therapy-related AML; in all cases, patients had received previous platinum-containing regimens and/or other DNA damaging agents.
Do not start Rubraca until patients have recovered from hematological toxicity caused by previous chemotherapy (≤ Grade 1). Monitor complete blood counts for cytopenia at baseline and monthly thereafter for clinically significant changes during treatment. For prolonged hematological toxicities (> 4 weeks), interrupt Rubraca or reduce dose and monitor blood counts weekly until recovery. If the levels have not recovered to Grade 1 or less after 4 weeks or if MDS/AML is suspected, refer the patient to a hematologist for further investigations, including bone marrow analysis and blood sample for cytogenetics. If MDS/AML is confirmed, discontinue Rubraca.
Based on its mechanism of action and findings from animal studies, Rubraca can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Apprise pregnant women of the potential risk to a fetus. Advise females of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment and for 6 months following the last dose of Rubraca.
Most common adverse reactions in ARIEL3 (≥ 20%; Grade 1-4) were nausea (76%), fatigue/asthenia (73%), abdominal pain/distention (46%), rash (43%), dysgeusia (40%), anemia (39%), AST/ALT elevation (38%), constipation (37%), vomiting (37%), diarrhea (32%), thrombocytopenia (29%), nasopharyngitis/upper respiratory tract infection (29%), stomatitis (28%), decreased appetite (23%), and neutropenia (20%).
Most common adverse reactions in Study 10 and ARIEL2 (≥ 20%; Grade 1-4) were nausea (77%), asthenia/fatigue (77%), vomiting (46%), anemia (44%), constipation (40%), dysgeusia (39%), decreased appetite (39%), diarrhea (34%), abdominal pain (32%), dyspnea (21%), and thrombocytopenia (21%).
Co-administration of rucaparib can increase the systemic exposure of CYP1A2, CYP3A, CYP2C9, or CYP2C19 substrates, which may increase the risk of toxicities of these drugs. Adjust dosage of CYP1A2, CYP3A, CYP2C9, or CYP2C19 substrates, if clinically indicated. If co-administration with warfarin (a CYP2C9 substrate) cannot be avoided, consider increasing frequency of international normalized ratio (INR) monitoring.
Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in breast-fed children from Rubraca, advise lactating women not to breastfeed during treatment with Rubraca and for 2 weeks after the last dose.
Click here for full Prescribing Information and additional Important Safety Information.
Rubraca (rucaparib) European Union (EU) authorized use and Important Safety Information
Rubraca is indicated as monotherapy for the maintenance treatment of adult patients with platinum-sensitive relapsed high-grade epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal cancer who are in response (complete or partial) to platinum-based chemotherapy.
Rubraca is indicated as monotherapy treatment of adult patients with platinum sensitive, relapsed or progressive, BRCA mutated (germline and/or somatic), high-grade epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal cancer, who have been treated with ≥2 prior lines of platinum-based chemotherapy, and who are unable to tolerate further platinum-based chemotherapy.
Efficacy of Rubraca as treatment for relapsed or progressive epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), fallopian tube cancer (FTC), or primary peritoneal cancer (PPC) has not been investigated in patients who have received prior treatment with a PARP inhibitor. Therefore, use in this patient population is not recommended.
Summary warnings and precautions:
During treatment with Rubraca, events of myelosuppression (anemia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia) may be observed and are typically first observed after 8–10 weeks of treatment with Rubraca. These reactions are manageable with routine medical treatment and/or dose adjustment for more severe cases. Complete blood count testing prior to starting treatment with Rubraca, and monthly thereafter, is advised. Patients should not start Rubraca treatment until they have recovered from hematological toxicities caused by previous chemotherapy (CTCAE grade ≥1).
Supportive care and institutional guidelines should be implemented for the management of low blood counts for the treatment of anemia and neutropenia. Rubraca should be interrupted or dose reduced according to Table 1 (see Posology and Method of Administration [4.2] of the Summary of Product Characteristics [SPC]) and blood counts monitored weekly until recovery. If the levels have not recovered to CTCAE grade 1 or better after 4 weeks, the patient should be referred to a hematologist for further investigations.
MDS/AML, including cases with fatal outcome, have been reported in patients who received Rubraca. The duration of therapy with Rubraca in patients who developed MDS/AML varied from less than 1 month to approximately 28 months.
If MDS/AML is suspected, the patient should be referred to a hematologist for further investigations, including bone marrow analysis and blood sampling for cytogenetics. If, following investigation for prolonged hematological toxicity, MDS/AML is confirmed, Rubraca should be discontinued.
Photosensitivity has been observed in patients treated with Rubraca. Patients should avoid spending time in direct sunlight because they may burn more easily during Rubraca treatment; when outdoors, patients should wear a hat and protective clothing, and use sunscreen and lip balm with sun protection factor of 50 or greater.
Gastrointestinal toxicities (nausea and vomiting) are frequently reported with Rubraca, and are generally low grade (CTCAE grade 1 or 2), and may be managed with dose reduction (refer to Posology and Method of Administration [4.2], Table 1 of the SPC) or interruption. Antiemetics, such as 5-HT3 antagonists, dexamethasone, aprepitant and fosaprepitant, can be used as treatment for nausea/vomiting and may also be considered for prophylactic (i.e. preventative) use prior to starting Rubraca. It is important to proactively manage these events to avoid prolonged or more severe events of nausea/vomiting which have the potential to lead to complications such as dehydration or hospitalization.
Rubraca can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman based on its mechanism of action and findings from animal studies. In an animal reproduction study, administration of Rubraca to pregnant rats during the period of organogenesis resulted in embryo-fetal toxicity at exposures below those in patients receiving the recommended human dose of 600 mg twice daily (see Preclinical Safety Data [5.3] of the SPC).
Pregnant women should be informed of the potential risk to a fetus. Women of reproductive potential should be advised to use effective contraception during treatment and for 6 months following the last dose of Rubraca (see section 4.6 of the SPC). A pregnancy test before initiating treatment is recommended in women of reproductive potential.
Click here to access the current SPC. Healthcare professionals should report any suspected adverse reactions via their national reporting systems.
About Clovis Oncology
Clovis Oncology, Inc. is a biopharmaceutical company focused on acquiring, developing and commercializing innovative anti-cancer agents in the U.S., Europe and additional international markets. Clovis Oncology targets development programs at specific subsets of cancer populations, and simultaneously develops, with partners, for those indications that require them, diagnostic tools intended to direct a compound in development to the population that is most likely to benefit from its use. Clovis Oncology is headquartered in Boulder, Colorado, with additional office locations in the U.S. and Europe. Please visit www.clovisoncology.com for more information.
To the extent that statements contained in this press release are not descriptions of historical facts regarding Clovis Oncology, they are forward-looking statements reflecting the current beliefs and expectations of management. Examples of forward-looking statements contained in this press release include, among others, statements regarding our expectations for submission of regulatory filings, the timing and pace of commencement of and enrollment in our clinical trials, including those being planned or conducted in collaboration with partners, the potential results of such clinical trials, our expectations regarding the suitability of Rubraca, and our plans to develop Rubraca in additional indications and tumor types, and our expectations regarding the outcomes of early studies or trials supporting further development, both non-clinical and clinical. Such forward-looking statements involve substantial risks and uncertainties that could cause our future results, performance or achievements to differ significantly from that expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. Such risks and uncertainties include, among others, the uncertainties inherent in our clinical development programs for our drug candidates and those of our partners, whether future study results will be consistent with study findings to date, the timing of availability of data from our clinical trials and the initiation, enrollment, timing and results of our planned clinical trials and the corresponding development pathways, effectiveness and suitability of diagnostic tests, the risk that final results of ongoing trials may differ from initial or interim results as a result of factors such as final results from a larger patient population may be different from initial or interim results from a smaller patient population, the risk that additional pre-clinical or clinical studies may not support further development in certain additional indications or tumor types, and actions by the FDA, the EMA or other regulatory authorities regarding data required to support drug applications and whether to approve drug applications. Clovis Oncology does not undertake to update or revise any forward-looking statements. A further description of risks and uncertainties can be found in Clovis Oncology’s filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission, including its Annual Report on Form 10-K and its reports on Form 10-Q and Form 8-K.
i Lin et al. BRCA Reversion Mutations in Circulating Tumor DNA Predict Primary and Acquired Resistance to the PARP Inhibitor Rucaparib in High-Grade Ovarian Carcinoma. Cancer Discovery. 2019. https://cancerdiscovery.aacrjournals.org/content/9/2/210. Last accessed December 2020.
ii American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts & Figures 2018. Atlanta, GA: American Cancer Society; 2018.
iii World Health Organization. GLOBOCAN: estimated cancer incidence, mortality and prevalence worldwide in 2018. Available at http://gco.iarc.fr/. Last accessed December 2020.
iv Ovarian Cancer Research Alliance (OCRA) https://ocrahope.org/patients/about-ovarian-cancer/recurrence/ Last accessed December 2020.
v Ledermann J et al. Newly diagnosed and relapsed epithelial ovarian carcinoma: ESMO Clinical Practice Guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Ann Oncol. 2013;24(suppl 6):vi24-32.
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